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Fair Housing - It's Your Right

The Fair Housing Act prohibits discrimination in housing because of:

What Housing Is Covered?

The Fair Housing Act covers most housing. In some circumstances, the Act exempts owner occupied buildings with no more than four units, single-family housing sold or rented without the use of a broker and housing operated by organization and private clubs that limit occupancy to members.

What Is Prohibited?

In the Sale and Rental of Housing: No one may take any of the following actions based on race, color, national origin, religion, sex, familial status or handicap:

In Mortgage Lending: No one may take any of the following actions based on race, color, national origin, religion, sex, familial status or handicap:

In Addition: It is illegal for anyone to:

Additional Protection If You Have A Disability. If you or someone associated with you:

Your landlord may not:

However, housing need not be made available to a person who is a direct threat to the health or safety of others or who currently uses illegal drugs. Requirements for New Buildings: In buildings that are ready for first occupancy after March 13, 1991, and have an elevator and four or more units:

If a building with four or more units has no elevator and will be ready for first occupancy after March 13, 1991, these standards apply to ground floor units. These requirements for new buildings do not replace any more stringent standards in State or local law.

Housing Opportunities For Families Unless a building or community qualifies as housing for older persons, it may not discriminate based on familial status. That is, it may not discriminate against families in which one or more children under 18 live with:

Familial status protection also applies to pregnant women and anyone securing legal custody of a child under 18. Exemption: Housing for older persons is exempt from the prohibition against familial status discrimination if:

A transition period permits residents on or before September 13, 1988 to continue living in the housing, regardless of their age, without interfering with the exemption.

If You Think Your Rights Have Been Violated HUD is ready to help with any problem of housing discrimination. If you think your rights have been violated, you may fill out the Housing Discrimination Complaint Form in this brochure, write HUD a letter or telephone the HUD Hotline. You have one year after an alleged violation to file a complaint with HUD, but you should file it as soon as possible.

What to Tell HUD:

Where to Write: Send the Housing Discrimination Complaint Form or a letter to the HUD regional office nearest you (addresses on the Complaint Form) or to:

Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
Room 5204
Washington, D.C. 20410-2000

Where to Call: If you wish, you may use the toll-free Hotline number: 1-800-669-9777. (In Washington, D.C. call 708-0836.)

If You Are Disabled: HUD also provides:

What Happens When You File A Complaint?

HUD will notify you when it receives your complaint. Normally, HUD also will:


HUD will try to reach an agreement with the person your complaint is against (the respondent). A conciliation agreement must protect both you and the public interest. If an agreement is signed, HUD will take no further action on your complaint. However, if HUD has reasonable cause to believe that a conciliation agreement is breached, HUD will recommend that the Attorney General file suit.

Complaint Referrals:

If HUD has determined that your State or local agency has the same fair housing powers as HUD, HUD will refer your complaint to that agency for investigation and notify you of the referral. That agency must begin work on your complaint within 30 days or HUD may take it back.

What If You Need Help Quickly?

If you need immediate help to stop a serious problem that is being caused by a Fair Housing Act violation, HUD may be able to assist you as soon as you file a complaint. HUD may authorize the Attorney General to go to court to seek temporary or preliminary relief, pending the outcome of your complaint, if:

What Happens After A Complaint Investigation?

If, after investigating your complaint, HUD finds reasonable cause to believe that discrimination occurred, it will inform you. Your case will be heard in an administrative hearing within 120 days, unless you or the respondent want the case to be heard in Federal district court. Either way, there is no cost to you.

The Administrative Hearing: If your case goes to an administrative hearing HUD attorneys will litigate the case on your behalf. You may intervene in the case and be represented by your own attorney if you wish. An Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) will consider evidence from you and the respondent. If the ALJ decides that discrimination occurred, the respondent can be ordered:

Federal District Court: If you or the respondent choose to have your case decided in Federal District Court, the Attorney General will file a suit and litigate it on your behalf. Like the ALJ, the District Court can order relief, and award actual damages, attorney's fees and costs. In addition, the court can award punitive damages.

In Addition You May File Suit: You may file suit, at your expense, in Federal District Court or State Court within two years of an alleged violation. If you cannot afford an attorney, the court may appoint one for you. You may bring suit even after filing a complaint, if you have not signed a conciliation agreement and an Administrative Law Judge has not started a hearing. A court may award actual and punitive damages and attorney's fees and costs.

Other Tools to Combat Housing Discrimination:

For Further Information: The Fair Housing Act and HUD's regulations contain more detail and technical information. If you need a copy of the law or regulations, contact the HUD regional office nearest you or:

Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity
Room 5116
Department of Housing and Urban Development
451 Seventh Street, S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20410-2000
(202) 708-2878

This version of the Fair Housing Act, adapted for use within HERO websites, is © 2000-2013 RealEIS, LLC.